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Acting Out : Understanding and Reducing Aggressive Behaviour in Children and Youth
Wolfe, David A. (Edt)
CAMH Publications / Softcover / 2007-01-01 / 0888685327
Infant, Child & Adolescent / School-Oriented
price: $16.95 (may be subject to change)
111 pages
Usually ships within one week.

Are you one of the thousands of Canadians who work or volunteer with children and youth? Do you know:

* how to respond effectively when a young person behaves aggressively?
* what kinds of aggression are considered normal for a young person’s age and stage of development?
* what kinds of aggression may suggest that a young person has a problem that needs specialized intervention?

Acting Out aims to help you answer “yes” to these questions. It describes the causes of aggressive behaviour in young people, and discusses approaches to handling it.

Aggression among young people is an important social issue. Fortunately, early intervention and treatment can significantly reduce the risk of harmful outcomes. This book:

* explains various types of aggressive behaviour exhibited by young people
* identifies factors related to aggressive behaviour
* distinguishes between normal aggression and aggression that is of greater concern
* gives practical advice on how to address aggression in children and youth
* highlights proven prevention and intervention strategies and indicates strategies to avoid
* discusses the assessment and diagnosis of more serious aggressive behaviour in young people.

Acting Out is a valuable tool for anyone who works with young people, including teachers and school administrators, day-care and recreation centre workers, youth shelter workers, social service workers, sports coaches, youth leaders, camp counsellors and directors.

--- from the publisher

Contents:

About the editor ………………………………………………………………………v

Acknowledgments ……………………………………………………………………vi

Preface ……………………………………………………………………………………vii

1. Introduction …………………………………………………………………………1
You can make a difference ……………………………………………………………1

2. About aggression …………………………………………………………………5
What is aggression? ……………………………………………………………………5
Types of aggression ……………………………………………………………………6
..Overt aggression ………………………………………………………………………6
..Covert aggression ……………………………………………………………………6
..Reactive aggression ……………………………………………………………………7
..Proactive aggression …………………………………………………………………8
..Physical aggression ……………………………………………………………………8
..Verbal aggression………………………………………………………………………9
..Social aggression ……………………………………………………………………10
..Sexual aggression ……………………………………………………………………11
..Bullying ………………………………………………………………………………12

3. Understanding aggression:
Risk factors and protective factors ……………………………………19
Individual risk and protective factors ………………………………………………20
..Temperament …………………………………………………………………………20
..Emotional control ……………………………………………………………………21
..Social skills ……………………………………………………………………………21
..Empathy ………………………………………………………………………………22
..Self-concept……………………………………………………………………………22
..IQ and success at school ……………………………………………………………22
..Hormones and neurotransmitters……………………………………………………23
..Substance use…………………………………………………………………………24
..Mental health disorders………………………………………………………………24
Family risk and protective factors …………………………………………………24
..Attachment ……………………………………………………………………………25
..Discipline ……………………………………………………………………………25
..Level of supervision …………………………………………………………………26
Family interaction ………………………………………………………………………27
Family peace and stability ……………………………………………………………27
Child abuse and neglect ………………………………………………………………27
Parental traits, conditions or behaviours……………………………………………28
Teen motherhood ………………………………………………………………………29
Environmental risk and protective factors …………………………………………30
..Economic and social family living conditions ………………………………………30
..Neighbourhood ………………………………………………………………………30
..School …………………………………………………………………………………31
..Peer influence…………………………………………………………………………31
..Gangs …………………………………………………………………………………32
..Media …………………………………………………………………………………33
..Extracurricular activities ……………………………………………………………34
..Mentors ………………………………………………………………………………34
..Attachment to community……………………………………………………………34

4. “Normal” aggression……………………………………………………………37
What is “normal” aggression? ………………………………………………………38
..Infants and toddlers (ages 0–2)………………………………………………………38
..Preschoolers (ages 3–5) ………………………………………………………………38
..School-aged children (ages 6–11)……………………………………………………39
..Adolescents (age 12 and older)………………………………………………………39
How to manage “normal” aggression………………………………………………40
..Preventing aggression ………………………………………………………………41
..Managing aggression…………………………………………………………………45
..After an incident is over ……………………………………………………………48

5. When is aggression a concern? ……………………………………………51
Overview of aggression by age group………………………………………………51
Determining if there is a serious problem …………………………………………55

6. Assessment …………………………………………………………………………59
Navigating the system…………………………………………………………………60
What an assessment involves…………………………………………………………60
..Conducting interviews ………………………………………………………………61
..Checklists and rating scales …………………………………………………………61
..Direct observation ……………………………………………………………………62
Pros and cons of an assessment………………………………………………………62

7. Prevention and intervention ………………………………………………65
Interventions that target individual risk and protective factors ………………66
..Cognitive-behavioural therapy ………………………………………………………66
..Social skills training …………………………………………………………………67
..Problem-solving skills training ………………………………………………………68
..Anger management training…………………………………………………………69
..Attributional retraining ………………………………………………………………70
Interventions that target family risk and protective factors ……………………70
..Parent management skills training …………………………………………………70
..Family therapy ………………………………………………………………………72
..The Arson Prevention Program for Children ………………………………………74
Interventions that target environmental risk and protective factors …………75
..Mentoring programs …………………………………………………………………75
..Youth workers …………………………………………………………………………76
..School and classroom intervention programs ………………………………………76
..After-school programs and activities ………………………………………………77
Interventions that target individual, family and environmental
risk and protective factors together …………………………………………………77
..Multi-systemic therapy ………………………………………………………………77
..Prevention and early intervention programs ………………………………………77
..Universal prevention programs………………………………………………………78

8. Diagnosis………………………………………………………………………………81
Pros and cons of a diagnosis …………………………………………………………82
Disruptive behaviour disorders ………………………………………………………82
..Oppositional defiant disorder ………………………………………………………83
..Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ……………………………………………84
..Conduct disorder ……………………………………………………………………86
Substance use disorders ………………………………………………………………90
Mood, anxiety and psychotic disorders ……………………………………………95
..Major depressive disorder……………………………………………………………95
..Posttraumatic stress disorder…………………………………………………………96
..Psychotic disorders……………………………………………………………………96
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder ……………………………………………………96
Medical management of mental health disorders ………………………………98

Afterword ………………………………………………………………………………101

Sources ……………………………………………………………………………………105

Resources ………………………………………………………………………………111

About the Editor:

David A. Wolfe, PhD, holds the inaugural RBC Chair in Children’s Mental Health at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH). He is a Professor of Psychiatry and Psychology at the University of Toronto and Head of the CAMH Centre for Prevention Science. David has broad research and clinical interests in abnormal child and adolescent psychology, with a special focus on child abuse, domestic violence and developmental psychopathology. He and his colleagues (Peter Jaffe, Claire Crooks and Ray Hughes) are currently evaluating “The Fourth R,” a comprehensive school-based initiative for reducing adolescent violence and related risk behaviours through the promotion of positive, non-violent relationships.
David is the 2005 recipient of the Canadian Psychological Association’s Donald O. Hebb Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology as a Science. He is Editor-in-Chief of Child Abuse & Neglect: The International Journal. His recent books include Adolescent Risk Behaviors: Why Teens Experiment and Strategies to Keep Them Safe (with Peter Jaffe and Claire Crooks; Yale University Press, 2006); Child Abuse: Implications for Child Development and Psychopathology, 2nd edition (Sage, 1999); and Abnormal Child Psychology, 3rd edition (with Eric Mash; Wadsworth, 2005).

Acknowledgments:
Many CAMH clinicians in the Child, Youth and Family Program contributed their breadth of knowledge and practical experience to the development of this book. Their guidance and input shaped the content and forms the core of the book.
Drafts were reviewed by people with scientific or clinical expertise about the topic and by people who are the intended audience for the publication.

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