Psychological Aspects of Crisis Negotiation, Third Edition, explores the methods and strategies for confronting the nine types of subjects typically encountered in hostage/suicide sieges by correctional staff and law enforcement crisis negotiators. Strentz, an experienced negotiator who designed and directed the FBI’s hostage negotiator program, lays out the critical elements that are required for a successful encounter with a hostage taker or other malfeasant.
This book highlights psychological dynamics of negotiations as they apply to the negotiator, the hostage, and the subject. It discusses the predictors of surrender versus the need for a tactical intervention and examines the phases of a hostage crisis and the changing focus as the crisis develops. Referencing historical events such as the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Challenger and Columbia incidents, this text demonstrates how faulty group decision making can spell tragedy.
Enhanced with case studies to put the material into context, this third edition also includes new chapters on the SWAT team/crisis negotiator interface and on the genesis of the increased incidence of mentally ill hostage takers. Based on decades of experience in the fi eld and practical advice from a national expert, this volume arms negotiators with the knowledge and tools they need to defuse crises and increase the odds that hostages will survive.
"Psychological Aspects of Crisis Negotiation addresses issues that other books don't cover in great detail. It stands alone and would be an excellent addition to any other book out there. I would heartily recommend this book for those who are crisis negotiation teachers and students."
– Ray Birge, crisis negotiations consultant, Ray Birge and Associates; Captain, Oakland, CA, Police Department (retired)
"The sections on mental health history and SWAT interface are extremely timely. With mental health treatment cutbacks, law enforcement is dealing with increasing numbers of mentally ill persons. This book gives the tools police negotiators need in interacting with persons in crisis. It is also important to understand the SWAT vs. negotiations dynamic. The vast majority of SWAT calls are resolved by negotiations. It is imperative all negotiators understand how SWAT can help or hurt the negotiations process."
– Russell Moore, Sheriff Sergeant, San Diego Sheriff’s Department
Table of Contents
Part I Basic concepts
1. In the Beginning
2. The American Psychiatric Association (APA)
3. Patients to Prisoners
4. Characteristics of Effective Hostage/Crisis Negotiators
5. Cross-Trained versus Cross-Qualified
6. First Responder Guidelines
7. Non-Law Enforcement/Correctional Crisis Negotiators
8. The Crisis Negotiation Team
9. Stress and the Hostage/Crisis Negotiator
10. SWAT/Negotiator Interface
Part II Dealing with the Other Victim
11. Negotiating with Normal People
12. Negotiating with the Adolescent in Crisis
13 Negotiating with the Dependent/Inadequate Person
14. Negotiating with the Antisocial Personality Disorder (It's All about Me!)
15. Negotiating with the Paranoid Schizophrenic
16. Negotiating with the Bipolar Hostage Taker (I'm Focused and Flying High)
17. Negotiating with the Suicidal Hostage Taker
18. Negotiating with the Police Assisted Suicidal Person
19. Crisis Negotiations in the Correctional Setting
20. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Traumatic Brain Syndrome (TBS)
21. Negotiating with the Extremist
Part III Crisis Resolution Indicators
22. Indicators of Subject Surrender
23. Indicators of Subject Violence
Part IV Group Dynamics
24. Group Think
25. Creative Criteria for Constructive Deviation from Crisis Negotiation Guidelines
Part V Hostage Issues
26. Phases of the Crisis
27. The Stockholm Syndrome
28. What Do You Say to a Hostage?
29. A Hostage Psychological Survival Guide
About the Author
Thomas Strentz, PhD, is a professional anti-terrorism expert specializing in hostage negotiations, negotiator instruction, and hostage survival. A veteran of twenty-one years in the FBI, he designed, developed, and directed their hostage negotiations program and is now a consultant, trainer, and expert witness. He has been involved in resolving numerous terrorist situations worldwide.