The field of counseling psychology is characterized by long roots in vocational psychology, prevention, primary interventions, advocacy, and an emphasis on individual differences. The field's fundamental philosophical approach has historically emphasized human strengths, well being, and prevention. Over the years, this approach has led to emerging emphases on cultural context, dimensions of diversity, the role of work in people's lives, and expanded roles for counseling psychologists in new settings, contexts, and with new populations. This handbook will both highlight the practices in counseling psychology's traditional areas as well as in new and emerging areas. Every chapter reflects critical counseling psychology values, focusing on resilience, strength, prevention, social justice and cultural context. Each chapter synthesizes and critiques the state of research in that particular area of counseling psychology, but goes beyond the current (and past) state with an eye to the future of the field. In Volume 1, authors provide a fresh look at the traditional areas of research and theory in counseling psychology. In Volume 2, authors explicitly capture scientist-practitioner implications for counseling psychologists.