In recent years, linguists have increasingly turned to the cognitive sciences to broaden their investigation into the roots and development of language. With the advent of cognitive-linguistic, usage-based and complex-adaptive models of language, linguists today are utilizing approaches and insights from cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, social psychology and other related fields.
A key result of this interdisciplinary approach is the concept of entrenchment — the ongoing reorganization and adaptation of communicative knowledge. Entrenchment posits that our linguistic knowledge is continuously refreshed and reorganized under the influence of social interactions. It is part of a larger, ongoing process of lifelong cognitive reorganization whose course and quality is conditioned by exposure to and use of language, and by the application of cognitive abilities and processes to language.
This volume enlists more than two dozen experts in the fields of linguistics, psycholinguistics, neurology, and cognitive psychology in providing a realistic picture of the psychological and linguistic foundations of language. Contributors examine the psychological foundations of linguistic entrenchment processes, and the role of entrenchment in first-language acquisition, second language learning, and language attrition.
Critical views of entrenchment and some of its premises and implications are discussed from the perspective of dynamic complexity theory and radical embodied cognitive science.
I. Setting the Scene
A Framework for Understanding Linguistic Entrenchment and Its Psychological Foundations
II. Linguistic Perspectives on Entrenchment
Entrenchment in Cognitive Grammar
Ronald W. Langacker
Entrenchment in Construction Grammar
Martin Hilpert and Holger Diessel
Entrenchment Effects in Language Change
Hendrik De Smet
The Corpus-Based Perspective on Entrenchment
Anatol Stefanowitsch and Susanne Flach
Entrenchment From a Psycholinguistic and Neurolinguistic Perspective
Entrenchment as Onomasiological Salience
III. Cognitive Foundations of Linguistic Entrenchment Processes
Atsuko Takashima and Iske Bakker
On the Automaticity of Language Processing
Robert J. Hartsuiker and Agnes Moors
Statistical Learning as a Domain-General Mechanism of Entrenchment
Ethan Jost and Morten H. Christiansen
Entrenchment, Gestalt Formation, and Chunking
The Roles of Analogy, Categorization, and Generalization in Entrenchment
Salience, Attention, and Perception
Franziska Günther, Hermann J. Müller, and Thomas Geyer
IV. Entrenchment in Language Learning and Language Attrition
Entrenchment in First Language Learning
Anna L. Theakston
Entrenchment in Second-Language Learning
Entrenchment and Language Attrition
Rasmus Steinkrauss and Monika S. Schmid
V. Deconstructing Entrenchment
Entrenchment, Embeddedness, and Entanglement: A Dynamic Complexity View
Entrenchment: A View From Radical Embodied Cognitive Science
19. Linguistic Entrenchment and Its Psychological Foundations
About the Editor
Hans-Jörg Schmid holds the Chair of Modern English Linguistics at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU Munich). He obtained his PhD and Habilitation from the same university and taught for some time at the Universities of Dresden, Bochum, and Bayreuth, before returning to Munich in 2005.
His research interests lie in the fields of cognitive linguistics, lexical semantics, word-formation, pragmatics, construction grammar, and corpus linguistics. Over the past years he has been developing a linguistic framework known as the entrenchment-and-conventionalization model.