In DSM-5, published in 2013, the classification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was created, subsuming several diagnoses and representing a significant evolution from its first appearance in the DSM-III three decades earlier. Autism Spectrum Disorders reflects this evolution, offering clinicians and families a succinct, definitive, and up-to-date guide to current research in the field and its impact on assessment and treatment. The book begins with the epidemiology of ASDs, which have increased in prevalence, and explores genetic heritability and environmental risk factors. It then explains the roles of the psychiatrist, neurologist and pediatrician in assessing the patient, examines assessment tools and processes, and describes the latest advances in a variety of treatments and interventions. The text's focus is on educating and empowering families and health care providers to determine whether appropriate genetic testing and counseling have been undertaken, whether the individual has had the relevant assessment, and whether skilled behavioral treatment and additional medical assessment or treatment are required.
Specifically, the text:
• Reviews existing prevalence estimates for ASDs since 2000 and discusses methodological factors impacting the estimation of prevalence and the interpretation of changes in prevalence estimates over time.
• Evaluates genomic and epigenomic research over the last decade in the context of translating findings to practice, in terms of testing (e.g., copy number variants and whole-exome sequencing) and counseling.
• Examines the role of environmental toxicity in immune dysregulation, which has now been noted among individuals with ASD and their family members by numerous studies.
• Reviews medical and cognitive assessments that may be needed.
• Reviews targeted treatments that have the potential to reverse neurobiological abnormalities in ASD
• Reviews behavioral treatments that are effective in promoting development and improving behavior.
• Describes the Developmental, Individual Difference, Relationship-based (DIR) model, a comprehensive developmental theory with relevance across the lifespan, which targets the core deficits of ASD identified in DSM-5.
• Provides an overview of school-based interventions for students with autism, exploring the rationale for conducting school-based research and examining existing teacher-, paraprofessional-, and peer-mediated interventions school-based interventions.
• Explores other approaches to ASDs, such as complementary and integrative approaches and non-invasive brain stimulation technologies, including transcranial magnetic stimulation.
The push for early screening is resulting in earlier diagnosis of ASDs and the provision of evidence-based interventions that have a positive impact on outcomes. Autism Spectrum Disorders provides a bench-to-bedside guide that is essential reading for health care providers and families facing the challenges inherent in these complex disorders.
This book provides a broad look at autism spectrum disorders, ranging from etiology to treatment. An excellent choice for students or practitioners who want a comprehensive review of the complex topic of autism from leaders in the field.—Geraldine Dawson, Ph.D. FAPA FAPS, Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Professor of Pediatrics, Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience, Director, Duke Center for Autism and Brain Development, Director, Duke Autism Clinic, Duke Institute for Brain Sciences
Chapter 1. Foreword
Chapter 2. Epidemiology
Chapter 3. Genomics and Epigenomics
Chapter 4. Environmental Toxicity and Immune Dysregulation
Chapter 5. Psychiatric Assessment and Treatment
Chapter 6. Pediatric and Neurological Assessment and Targeted Treatments
Chapter 7. Cognitive Assessment
Chapter 8. Behavioral Treatment
Chapter 9. Developmental, Individual Difference, Relationship Based Model for Assessment and Intervention (DIR Model)
Chapter 10. Autism Interventions in Schools
Chapter 11. Language, Communication and Occupational Therapy Interventions
Chapter 12. Complementary and Integrative Approaches
Chapter 13. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Non-invasive Brain Stimulation
About the Editors:
Eric Hollander, M.D., is Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Director of the Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Program, and the Anxiety and Depression Program, in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine in Bronx, New York.
Randi Hagerman, M.D., is a Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrician, Medical Director of the UC Davis MIND Institute and Distinguished Professor and Endowed Chair in Fragile X Research in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of California Davis School of Medicine in Sacramento, California.
Deborah Fein, Ph.D., is Board of Trustees Distinguished Professor and Clinical Division Head in the Department of Psychological Sciences at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut and Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine in Farmington, Connecticut.